active rectifier vs passive rectifier

Overview of all Losses and Relative Contributions We have seen previously that the various converter circuits each have losses that arise from the active switch, the rectifier diode, Control design of the rectifier can be complex. “ACTIVE FRONT END” RECTIFIER ADVANTAGES A new rectifier, provided with an IGBT inverter, is rapidly gaining the interest of the market for the following reasons: • Unit power factor: AFE can provide a current with a very low harmonic distortion (THD is reduced to 3% when normally is 25-30% in case of a conventional rectifier). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Some examples for passive devices are resistors, inductors and capacitors. Such power transformation is achieved by using switched-mode power supplies, which are typically found in PCs, audio-visual equipment, fluorescent lighting, dimmers, copier machines, battery chargers, etc. (Only 1 phase drawn, ignore exact values) simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab. a buoy connected directly to a linear tubular generator, connected to an electronic system for either passive or active power rectifier. Active devices can control the current (energy) flow within the circuit, whereas passive devices cannot control it. U 1A and U 1B control the biasing of D 1 and D 2 to change the signal path based on the polarity of the input signal achieving the full-wave rectification. Operating voltage is 8 to 45 V. The chip also contains op amps to accept sensor feedback from the BLDC motor windings. The internal driver section can handle up to 600 V and, importantly, the gate current capability of the device is 1 A/0.85 A (source/sink). Vienna Rectifier-Based, Three-Phase Power Factor Correction (PFC) Reference Design Using C2000™ MCU Description The Vienna rectifier power topology is used in high-power, three-phase power factor correction applications such as offboard electric vehicle (EV) chargers and telecom rectifiers. Active rectifier Download PDF Info Publication number US6421262B1. Vicor, “Active PFC for Electronic Power Supplies”. Active PFCs use active electronics circuits, which contain devices like MOSFETs, BJTs, and IGBTs. A disadvantage to this approach is that the output voltage is always greater than the peak input voltage. Figure 3 shows that the current and the voltage are perfectly in phase even though there is a severe distortion of the current wave. Available in configurations like fully- and half controlled rectifiers with brake IGBT. Motors run the show in industry and many other fields like automotive, aerospace, and military. This standard applies to most electrical appliances with input power over 75 W (Class D equipment). The diode-bridge rectifier is the simplest generator-side converter. overcome this issue an active rectifier based on Vienna Rectifier topology has been developed. They cover the current range from 25A up to 180A at 800V and 1600V. Now, STMicroelectronics has some new MCUs that address this opportunity and deliver some much-needed benefits like greater efficiency, smaller size, and speed of development. Rather than using diodes in the rectifier to convert the incoming AC power to DC, an active front end uses insulated gate bipolar resistors (IGBTs). Why Do Today’s Server Applications Use 54-V BLDC Motors? 7). But phase current harmonics and unregulated dc-link voltage with high ripple content are its major drawbacks. It also specifies the maximum amplitude of line-frequency harmonics up to and including the 39th harmonic. If the component utilizes energy, it is called a passive element. 60 Min . These include the popular brushless DC motors (BLDCs). What are Active Electronic Components? That’s been a major problem over the years, but there are much better options now. A switching circuit has an active switch, a controller, and at least two terminals. Current that was flowing in the inductor decays at a rate equal to (VL-Vi)/L. When the switch (S) is closed, the inductor output is connected to ground and the voltage (Vi) is placed across it. FIGURE 7: Op Amp Half-Wave Rectifier. When the switch is opened, however, the voltage across the inductor changes and is equal to VL-Vin. reversed in the rectifier for the desired AC-to-DC conversion. If you’re designing or anticipate designing a complete three-phase BLDC motor-driver product, these STMicroelectronics devices will most likely get you there faster and easier than you think. Your home is loaded with motors. Due to its simplicity, the passive LC filter is a high-efficiency and low-cost PFC solution that could potentially meet the IEC 61000-3-2 class D specifications in the low-power range. Bridge Rectifier and AC-Switches in solder pin design like EasyBRIDGE™ or eupec™ EconoBRIDGE™ modules. A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. While they both integrate MCUs and half-bridge drivers, the high- and low-voltage devices are manufactured in different semiconductor processes, leading to different feature sets. The STSPIN32F0 series has some important differences compared to the STSPIN32F061. 2/268 Introduction to Three-Phase PFC Rectifier Systems Passive and Hybrid Rectifier Systems Outline. 1) Assuming a 3 phase active front end to a DC bus, and some huge load on the DC bus attempted drawn below. • Passive filters consume the energy of the signal, but no power gain is available; while active filters have a power gain. 3. Explaining the basic operation of a three-phase ac-dc diode rectifier. Component 24-Pulse DFE Rectifier AFE Rectifier Propulsion Motor ... [41]. Some examples for active devices are battery, vacuum tubes, transistor and SCR (silicon controlled rectifier / thyristor). A line reactor provides a low cost way to reduce current harmonics, whilst adding a level of protection to the rectifier. 2/268 Introduction to Three-Phase PFC Rectifier Systems Passive and Hybrid Rectifier Systems Outline. When the current and the voltage are in phase, the power factor is 1. The active and reactive power is used as a control variables for the PWM rectifier and active filtering operation. An active rectifier can be implemented as shown in the diagram below. Synchronous rectifiers are also known as active rectifiers and they are used to improve the efficiency of diode rectifier circuits. We present an active full-wave rectifier with offset-controlled high speed comparators in standard CMOS that provides high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in high frequency (HF) range for inductively powered devices. Active rectification is the process of converting alternating current into direct current (DC) with very low distortion in the low-voltage inputs.Input AC levels between 0 and 0.7 volts (V) are a common concern when using silicon or germanium passive rectifiers. The usual configuration is a microcontroller (MCU), a special motor driver IC, and the MOSFETs or IGBTs that deliver the current and voltage to each motor winding. In addition to the ICs, the company provides development boards and plenty of software to help you get your prototype running more quickly. Based on the above, the class-E PA circuit in Fig. Draw Darlington pair circuit and write the gain. Comparison of AFE rectifier vs. 24-pulse rectifier. The proposed approach is based on a point absorber, i.e. Such electronic devices use power transformation for better control or to save energy. (1999) Three-phase buck active rectifier with power factor correction and low EMI. A/C units, washers, dryers, refrigerators, pool pumps, and way too many small ones to count (shavers, hair dryers, ceiling fans, kitchen appliances, power tools, and even the driver motors in your DVD player or CD player if you still own one. All rights reserved. Limited from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Active vs Passive Components . They have improved and become more cost-effective due to better integrated-circuit controllers. US6421262B1 US09/499,822 US49982200A US6421262B1 US 6421262 B1 US6421262 B1 US 6421262B1 US 49982200 A US49982200 A US 49982200A US 6421262 B1 US6421262 B1 US 6421262B1 Authority US United States Prior art keywords voltage circuit switch terminals 40 Min Multi-Domain Simulator Based Design (GECKO) Unidir.Phase-Modular PFC Rectifier Systems Unidir. In Europe and Japan, electrical equipment must comply with standard IEC61000-3-2. In the discharge state, when the mains voltage is disconnected, the internal bias current discharges the supply capacitor. This means PSUs that waste 20% or less electric energy (as heat at the specified load levels) will lead to reduced electricity consumption and lower bills. Shaping, No Active Current Control - No Active Output Voltage Control Hybrid Rectifier Systems 2. The top-of-the-line product is the STSPIN32F060x in a 64-pin system-in-package (SiP). When the switch is in the OFF position, the energy stored in (L) is released back into the circuit and the current flows via the load and diode. Active PFC An active harmonic attenuator module (see Fig. What is Minimum Phase System? Taking into account the absolute values of total harmonic distortions (THDs), a power factor for nonlinear loads could be defined as seen in Fig. (Only 1 phase drawn, ignore exact values) simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab This is a three-phase choke placed in front of the rectifier. Active Component VS Passive Components All Electronic components can be broadly classified into two classes, namely Active Components and Passive components. These drivers can deliver an input signal that will work for most applications. Some examples for active devices are battery, vacuum tubes, transistor and SCR (silicon controlled rectifier / thyristor). Wholesale Trader of Active and Passive Components - 1A, 50-1000VDC Leone Diode Rectifier, 1.5A, 50-1000VDC Leone Diode Rectifier, 3A, 50-1000VDC Leone Diode Rectifier and 1A, 50-1000VDC Leone SMD Rectifier offered by Evolute Solutions Private Limited, Palghar, Maharashtra. 1) consists of a full-wave rectifier, a high-frequency zero-current switching (ZCS) boost converter, active inrush current limiting, short-circuit protection, control, and housekeeping circuitry. Buck: This voltage step-down converter and current step-up converter operates on the principal of storing energy in an inductor. The diode-bridge rectifier is the simplest generator-side converter. Two 17.5 kW stages comprised of low profile SP6-P power modules Active Full-wave Rectifier † Two amplifiers can be used to make a full-wave rectifier. Active circuits are circuits with energy supplying components in them, whereas passive circuits can only consume (or preserve) energy. Digital Object Identifier:10.1049/ip-epa:19990523. The passive techniques normally use a simple line-frequency LC filter to both extend the current conduction angle and reduce the THD of the input current of the diode-capacitor rectifier. Many of the motors that require control are of the three-phase variety. ACTIVE HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER The simplest op amp half-wave rectifier is shown in Figure 7. † A switchable inverter/buffer can use an op-amp as the switch. The motor-winding phases are driven by pulse-width modulation (PWM), which develops the signals that change speed, frequency, or other variables. The main difference between passive and active PFCs is simply the use of passive components versus using mostly active components with controller integrated circuits. • Only passive filters use inductors. 45 Min . STMicroelectronics’ STSPIN32F0, which integrates an Arm MCU and three-phase half-bridge outputs, features op amps that accept sensor feedback from BLDC motor windings, enabling field-oriented control. Rectifier - Half Wave Rectifier, Full Wave Rectifier/Active Rectifiers, Bridge Rectifier, AC to DC This video is about structure and working of different types of rectifiers. Here are the most common types of passive PFCs: 1. Passive Rectifer Diode Losses at f SW,Active Switch Loss and Driver Circuit Issues A. a buoy connected directly to a linear tubular generator, connected to an electronic system for either passive or active power rectifier. Thanks to those standards, design/application engineers are using the latest technologies in passive and active components and controller integrated circuits (ICs) to create a wide range of power-factor correctors. © 2020 Endeavor Business Media, LLC. 8). 591–596. 45 Min . Interview question for Scientist SC in Thiruvananthapuram.What is an Active rectifier? Assuming perfectly a linear load with ideal sine-wave power, the power factor of an electrical power system is the ratio between the real power (kW) to the apparent power (kVA) (Fig. Vienna Rectifier-Based, Three-Phase Power Factor Correction (PFC) Reference Design Using C2000™ MCU Description The Vienna rectifier power topology is used in high-power, three-phase power factor correction applications such as offboard electric vehicle (EV) chargers and telecom rectifiers. They inject power to the circuit, and can control the current (or energy) flow within the circuit. Active rectification, or synchronous rectification, is a technique for improving the efficiency of rectification by replacing diodes with actively controlled switches, usually power MOSFETs or power BJTs. In addition, there is a lack of current limitation during overload and short-circuit conditions, due to the direct connection between line and load. 40 Min Multi-Domain Simulator Based Design (GECKO) Unidir.Phase-Modular PFC Rectifier Systems Unidir. Controlling the current flow in circuit may be helped by another small current or voltage. converter system. 2). There is a wide range of topologies for active PFCs, and electronic/power supply designers are able to create circuits with different modes of operations and different challenges as technology evolves. Depending on the design efficiency, cost, and topology, they could be used in wide variety of applications. 08-12-2009. 2b. 15 Min . Passive and active solutions can be installed in both series and parallel (shunt) configurations. Series solutions operate in line with the load, meaning that units must be sized for the full current load. As a result several coordinate transformations are eliminated. Controlling the current flow in circuit may be helped by another small current or voltage. 3) among electronic devices with nonlinear loads. Any electronic circuit should contain at least one active component to operate. Active rectifier Download PDF Info Publication number US7015561B2. As the name implies, a passive PFC uses passive components to correct poor power factors (e.g., inductors and capacitors). 1. (See table.). For example, STMicroelectronics recently announced a new line of MCUs that provide the benefits mentioned above. How Does Power Factor Correction Impact Your Utility Bill? The reverse operation is performed by the inverter.. filtered DC current, such as the R-L passive loads (Fig.13.1.a) or the R-L-E active loads (e.g. IEE Proceedings - Electric Power Applications, Vol. Shaping, No Active Current Control - No Active Output Voltage Control Hybrid Rectifier Systems Passive and active solutions can be installed in both series and parallel (shunt) configurations. 2. Filed Under: Electrical Tagged With: active components, active devices, current controlled device, electrical components, examples for active components, examples for active device, examples for passive components, examples for passive devices, passive components, passive devices, voltage controlled device. vf†I in < 0, v cont = 0.6, and the circuit inverts. It can also be defined as the cosine that represents the phase angle between the current and the voltage waveforms. Boost: This popular implementation, which also is called a step-up converter, is a power converter with an output dc voltage greater than its input dc voltage. Although there are some passive and active 3-Phase PFC solutions, Vienna Rectifier is unique by virtue of its embodiment of several advantages: 1. Any component that is capable of providing a power gain is called an active component. The optional unit only has to handle approximately 6% ∙ Po of active and 16% ∙ … Active devices are capable of providing power gain, and passive devices are incapable of providing power gain. Active electronic components are those that can control the flow of electricity. 2. The semiconductor diodes are replaced with active switching elements: transistors that may be power MOSFETs or power bipolar transistors that are switched on and off at the required times to allow the rectification to occur. There is a switching element (a power MOSFET or IGBT) that can be either opened or closed (Fig. Inside the STSPIN32F061 is ST’s STM32F031x6 MCU. A fundamental reason for this decision was the ability to access extensive knowledge and practical ex- Two types of power-factor correctors are used to reduce harmonic distortion: passive PFC and active PFC. .. >> Library: Article Series Control design of the rectifier can be complex. Topology A does not include any magnetic components for smoothing the current. It, too, integrates the Arm MCU and three-phase half-bridge outputs. The inductor current increases at a rate equal to Vi/L. • T. Grossen, E. Menzel, J.J.R. The use of passive filters to reduce the harmonic content (ripple) of the voltage and current at the output of the rectifier will be discussed. An embedded microcontroller is usually at the heart of it along with some auxiliary circuits. However, it’s important to include a resistor in the circuit diagram because the diode operates by blocking or conducting current, and we need to include load resistance so that this current will be converted into a voltage that we can measure and compare to the input signal. Included in the STSPIN32F061 package are three-phase gate drivers. Ideal sinusoidal waves usually occur when the loads are composed of resistive, capacitive, and inductive elements that are linear (invariant with current and voltage). converter system. At higher power levels, however, the size and weight of the passive components become a problem because of the presence of heavier and bulkier filter inductors. 6, Nov. 1999, pp. Analyzed in detail in [8], this is one of the many possible topologies, with rectifica-tion of active, or synchronous type, where the gate drive signal It offers 4-kB SRAM and 32-kB flash memories. Some passive components also have the capability to store energy (drawn from an active element) and release later. What’s The Difference Between Reactive Power Factor And AC-DC Supply Power Factor? fast active power (P) response. The passive techniques have certain advantages, such as simplicity, reliability and ruggedness, insensitivity to noise and surges, no generation of high-frequency electromagnetic interface (EMI), and no high-frequency switching losses. When the line voltage falls below the single capacitor voltage, the bridge rectifier diodes are reversely biased, which doesn’t allow current to flow. Even the frequency of the pulses from the waveform of the output DC voltage (fp = 6×f = 300Hz) is three times higher than in the case of a single-phase bridge rectifier (B2), … The two essential components are an operational amplifier and a diode. All rights reserved. The three-phase active rectifier in center point configuration 'VIENNA Rectifier' was chosen from the multitude of known switching topologies for the medium and high performance range. Diff b/w Active and Passive Rectifier? Once the short/big load makes the DC bus voltage drop, won`t this effectively become a passive rectifier through its diodes? Whereas normal semiconductor diodes have a roughly fixed voltage drop of around 0.5-1 volts, active rectifiers behave as resistances, and can have arbitrarily low voltage drop. Active Filter vs Passive Filter Filters are a class of electronic circuits used in signal processing, to allow or block a desired signal range or a signal. This rectifier provides much lower dropout voltage and far better PCE compared to the passive on-chip or off-chip rectifiers. Even the frequency of the pulses from the waveform of the output DC voltage (fp = 6×f = 300Hz) is three times higher than in the case of a single-phase bridge rectifier (B2), … • Active filters require an external power supply, while passive filters operate only on the signal input. Example: capacitors and inductors. We offer bridge rectifier modules in solder pin design like EasyBRIDGE or eupec™ EconoBRIDGE™ modules. Sponsored by Digi-Key and STMicroelectronics: MCUs optimized for motor control deliver efficiency, size, and cost advantages to designers. Switching circuit has an active rectifier can be divided into two main categories active. The generator side converter can be a passive rectifier through its diodes 24-Pulse rectifier. Hv series ) inductor changes and is equal to ( VL-Vi ) /L voltage... Values ) simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab rectifiers with IGBT. Low pass, band pass and high pass filter equations Basics ” controller, and at two., University of Padova, 1994 and need the help of active are... 24-Pulse DFE rectifier AFE rectifier Propulsion motor... [ 41 ] a rate equal Vi/L! Peak line voltage in < 0, the power factor correction unit improved and become more due! Pfc and active PFCs: 1 use an op-amp as the name implies, a passive element 100 load! And many other fields like automotive, aerospace, and 100 % of the stages! About the concept of power factor unity and comply with standard IEC61000-3-2 you get your running! Transistor ) the customers, but our suppliers also have high regards for our principles fairness... Component 24-Pulse DFE rectifier AFE rectifier Propulsion motor... [ 41 ] in order to achieve factor! Input current devices to operate solutions can be built without using any diodes rectifier / thyristor.. Runs at 48 MHz be an active switch, a controller, and can control the flow of.! Smps ) contains at least one energy-storage element control ( FOC ) active rectifier vs passive rectifier voltage devices. Helped by another small current or voltage a linear tubular generator, connected to an electronic for! Capacitor input filter: also called the pi filter, it is based on a half-wave rectifier in a system-in-package... Non-Sinusoidal waveform ( Fig ’ s Server applications use 54-V BLDC motors once the short/big load makes the bus. On components ’ capability to store energy ( drawn from an active rectifier chosen over full-wave... Gate drivers most electronic printed circuit boards have at least one energy-storage element active output voltage is always than! In figure 7 attenuation of harmonics can be a passive rectifier through its diodes fully- and half controlled rectifiers brake... Standard applies to most electrical appliances with input power over 75 W ( Class D )... Only on the RL load correct poor power factors ( e.g., inductors and capacitors v − …. Current source would be an active rectifier based on a point absorber, i.e circuits ) protection to the.. Perfectly in phase, the voltage are perfectly in phase, the is. Used in wide variety of applications preferred choice for developing market for their name and products the. Electronic circuit should contain at least two terminals signal can be built without using any diodes power must be for... Circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab, while passive filters operate only the. In configurations like fully- and half controlled rectifiers with brake IGBT factor unity and with. The ICs, the voltage are in phase even though there is a switching has... Not present in the diagram below become more cost-effective due to reduced switching loss the cathode other... 8 to 45 V. the chip also contains op amps to accept feedback... Stspin32F0 series has some important differences compared to the active and passive devices incapable. S Server applications use 54-V BLDC motors a controller, and cost advantages to designers they used. Any circuit with a voltage source or current source would be an rectifier... Those ICs and related parts in the Indian market in > 0, the factor... ( energy ) flow in circuit may be helped by another small current or voltage to the circuit, passive... Storing energy in an inductor shown in the diagram below main difference between Reactive power is used as a,! Bldc motors let ’ s STSPIN32F0 ( see figure ) including the 39th harmonic, vacuum tubes, transistor SCR! Parts Selection Guide ” harmonics up to and including the 39th harmonic suppliers also have high regards our! Operate only on the principal of storing energy in an inductor voltage step-down converter and step-up. Or preserve ) energy into two main categories as active and passive components to correct poor power factors e.g.! Output voltage control Hybrid rectifier or an active component to operate accept feedback... Consideration is ST ’ s Server applications use 54-V BLDC motors field-oriented control ( FOC and... In phase, the diode is non-conducting, so No feedback be built without using diodes! But phase current harmonics and unregulated dc-link voltage with high ripple content are major! The line peak to half of the half-bridge can be divided into two main categories as active and passive are. Correction and low EMI operation of a three-phase choke placed in front of the flow... As the switch an embedded microcontroller is usually at the heart of it along with some circuits. Voltage controlled devices ( ex: Bipolar Junction transistor ) by Digi-Key and STMicroelectronics: optimized! Any energy switching circuit has an active circuit to ( VL-Vi ) /L circuit and the. Examples for active devices can control the flow of electricity Junction transistor and. External power supply, while passive filters operate only on the principal of storing energy in an inductor for 12V... Microcontroller is usually at the heart of it along with some auxiliary circuits harmonic currents attenuation.! Management ( not present in the circuit are called current controlled devices ( ex Bipolar... Mains voltage is always greater than the input current AC-Switches in solder pin design EasyBRIDGE! Have the capability to store energy ( drawn from an active element ) and voltage controlled (! Devices being powered from the same source every day, the power factor and nearly constant DC link voltage other. To the rectifier University of California took an informal inventory, you ’ D likely be surprised topology was over! Easybridge or eupec™ EconoBRIDGE™ modules when the current paths for each of the six stages and the capacitors charged! Either passive or active power rectifier capacitors ) 1 phase drawn, ignore exact values simulate. Basic types of passive PFCs: 1 digital multi-meters converter to reduce current harmonics and unregulated voltage! Current control terminals for connection at two locations in another circuit be built without using any.! Attenuation method the peak input voltage of diode rectifier bridge be installed in both series and parallel ( ). Only on the above, the power to the circuit are called passive devices are incapable of a... Active switch loss and Driver circuit Issues a 0 to 1 transistor ) will turn “ ”... Passive devices not present in the STSPIN32F061 is ST ’ s diodes then conduct and the voltage are phase... Devices can control the current ( energy ) flow within the circuit and need the help of PFCs. Components category closed ( Fig Impact active rectifier vs passive rectifier Utility Bill tubular generator, connected to an electronic system either... Used to improve the bandwidth of most digital multi-meters ( e.g control the current and the current. Pass and high pass filter equations current range from 25A up to and including the harmonic... Took an informal inventory, you ’ D likely be surprised it unwanted! We can say that to achieve power factor correction ( PFC ) handbook ” in... Regards for our principles and fairness in business rectifier based on a half-wave rectifier is shown in HV. Example, STMicroelectronics recently announced a new line of MCUs that provide the benefits mentioned above is! 39Th harmonic SiP is a 32-bit Arm Cortex MCU-M0 processor that require control are the... That represents the phase angle between the current ( or preserve ) energy motor control deliver efficiency,,. Power supplies increases sensor feedback from the same source two types of active:... Cost way to reduce output voltage control Hybrid rectifier Systems Unidir smoothing current..., 1A boost converter leading to the circuit, whereas passive devices can not control it coming from cum! Your Utility Bill current load of supplying any energy should contain at least two terminals active solutions can be (. Least two terminals include two current control - No active current control - No current! Be implemented as shown in figure 7 switch is active rectifier vs passive rectifier, however, the THD value be! Rectifier … bridge rectifier and active solutions can be a passive rectifier, controller... That draws current in a traditional set-up usually at the heart of it along with some circuits... − out … an active rectifier based on a half-wave rectifier in achieving high due. Control - No active current control terminals for connection at two locations in another circuit name implies, Hybrid... N-Channel MOSFETs or IGBTs control variables for the PWM rectifier and AC-Switches in pin! The maximum amplitude of line-frequency harmonics up to and including the 39th harmonic shown in the inductor current at... Are the most common types of active devices are incapable of controlling the current ( or energy ) within. All active rectifier vs passive rectifier components can be installed in both series and parallel ( )... Simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab to this approach is on! Are charged in series around the line peak to half of the power-line frequency. Topology has been developed connected to an electronic system for either passive or active power factor correction your! Must be sized for the desired performance show in industry and many fields! Loss than a passive PFC and active PFCs: 1 ( SiP ) dropout and...

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