when were motte and bailey castles built

Once William had firmly established his rule in England, he built huge stone keep castles. Many were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries, favoured as a relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel most small attacks. Castles were built in Exeter, Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntingdon, Cambridge and York. However, by counting the number of mottes that exist in England, archaeologists believe that the Normans built around 500 – one every two weeks between 1066 and 1086. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. Mottes varied considerably in size, usually with the minimum height being at around 3 metres. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. Castles were built throughout much of England after the ‘Harrying of the North. It was built by digging a ditch around a circle and piling up all of the dirt in the middle. He then had a castle built there – a very visible sign of the Norman’s power. Facts about Motte and Bailey Castle will give you information about the first type of castle which was built in England in 1066 after the Norman conquest. 4 The motte was usually round. The mottes were built layer upon layer. A single tower was built on (or partially within) the motte or earth mound while a courtyard area or bailey at the base was protected by a wooden palisade and an encircling outer ditch. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. Those with wooden keeps rotted away, leaving a handful of odd-shaped hills scattered across the landscape – the only indicator that they ever existed. Research on one of William’s motte and bailey castles at Hampstead Marshall shows that the motte contains 22,000 tons of soil. The bailey was designed so that any point on its circumference (outer edge) would be within bowshot of the tower. However, the castle style can also be seen in the Germany, Denmark, Ireland, … The smaller mottes could only support a simple tower but the larger ones could support more complex structures that often contain multiple rooms. As a result, Roger embarked on a major castle-building programme with over 70 motte and bailey castles built. There are motte and bailey castles in every county of Wales, England, and Scotland. The Motte was a steep-sided artificial mound, built in much the same way as a sand-castles are built. William the Conqueror (then the Duke of Normandy), observing their success in neighbouring Anjou, began to build them on his Norman lands. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. We provide high-quality teaching and revision materials for UK and international history curriculum. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). See more ideas about motte and bailey castle, castle, oakham. Oct 23, 2017 - Just like our very own Norman Oakham Castle (1180 -1190). These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historylearningsite_co_uk-leader-1','ezslot_13',115,'0','0'])); No-one is quite sure how many motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. Building motte and bailey castles were … A Motte and Bailey castle could be erected very quickly, and some of them took anywhere between a few days and a few weeks to build. By digging a deep circular ditch, and piling up the earth taken from the ditch into the centre. They demonstrated his control of the population, ensured protection for his soldiers, and solidified his rule in remote parts of th… In medieval sources, the Latin term “castellum” was used to describe the bailey complex within these castles. Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. With this new approach, the great era of the stone castles had begun. The castles had to be built in a hurry, so they were originally built of timber on an earth mound (a motte). Motte and bailey castles were made of wood. The biggest advantage of the motte and bailey design was how extremely cheap and easy it was to build. Their construction was the start of what was to become a massive castle building programme in England and Wales.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historylearningsite_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',129,'0','0'])); When William landed at Pevensey in 1066, he immediately set about building a castle to protect himself and his most important men. This motte took fifty men eighty days to build. Such defensive structures were The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "Motte and Bailey Castles", Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the, French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. A motte was protected by a ditch that surrounded the area, and this would have been the source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. Motte and Bailey Castle Facts. They were relatively easy to build with unskilled labour, however, they were formidable. The motte and bailey castle was an early form of medieval fortification especially popular with the Normans in northern France and Britain during the 11th century CE. The bailey was usually kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but frequently, the terrain dictated its shape. A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle, with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. This model castle provides a unique opportunity to build a […] York Castle was also rebuilt. The first record of a motte and bailey castle in France appeared at the start of the 11th Century. Most of these were motte-and-bailey castles, built using forced Anglo-Saxon workers: the motte was a high mound on which a wooden tower was constructed; the bailey was the courtyard at the bottom of the mound with: living quarters, stables, workshops and perhaps a chapel. To avoid the perils of fire, improve durability, and increase the castle’s defence, the obvious solution was to replace timber with stone as much as possible. William had 8000 men to try and consolidate his power in England. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. Stone castles had a number of advantages over wooden motte and bailey. Sophisticated fire-launching techniques were designed to burn down the castles and they were used with great success. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their newly acquired kingdom, and as a way of barracking troops to maintain control over local populations. Often, the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. The keep on top of the motte served as the castle’s primary defensive element. Two castles were built in Canterbury by the Normans who made use of the fortified Roman town walls. In England, the first proper castles were the motte and bailey castles. Windsor Castle, in England, is an example of a motte and bailey castle. The castle is named after Norman words. The stone layers were needed to strengthen the motte and to assist drainage. Fortified settlements first appeared over 2,000 years ago, where fortified towns started to appear in the Indus Valley in Egypt and also in China, where settlements were often protected by large earthen walls. It was often artificially made – it was built by piling up the earth, but sometimes it incorporated a pre-existing feature of the landscape, like a hill, for example. The reason for this was that it took an enormous effort to pile up such a huge volume of earth. William accepted the surrender of the Anglo-Saxon nobles at Berkhamsted Castle, north-west of London – arguably his finest motte and bailey castle. Stone Castles were the natural evolution after motte-and-bailey castles began to fall from fashion. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. School History is the largest library of history teaching and study resources on the internet. Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. While the concept of ditches, ramparts and stone walls as defensive measures is ancient, raising a motte is a medieval innovation. The sides were steep to prevent attackers running up them quickly. Motte and Bailiey castles were the earliest form of castles built completely from scratch by the Normans. With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building stone castles. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. No original complete motte and bailey castles exist in England, but the huge stone fortifications William started certainly are. When the timber Motte and Bailey Castles were completed many were covered in white plaster - which made them look as if they were made of stone. Motte-and-Bailey Castles In 1067, William started building the Tower of London to show everyone how powerful he was. Relatively quick to build, the height of the mound made the tower difficult to attack while the wall offered a place of refuge from opportunist raiders. It was always surrounded by a protective wall, be it from wood or stone. The largest towers were often equipped with cellars and granaries, more living rooms and rooms for the watchmen, and the servants appointed there. The earliest of these castles were constructed from timber and earth alone. They were a true European innovation. For these re… Even shooting firing arrows at the castle could have devastating effects. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. When was the first Motte and Bailey Castle built? A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle situated on a raised earthwork and surrounded by a protective fence. Feb 27, 2017 - Explore Caitriona O'Dare's board "motte and bailey castle" on Pinterest. Alternatively, some other castles were designed with a single bailey and two mottes, such as Lincoln Castle. Many of them were used as the foundations for the newly designed stone castles, and such, the motte and bailey castles morphed, and endured, for a couple of hundred years more. Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. This served as a final fighting place where soldiers would retreat if the rest of the castle had been breached. Motte and bailey castles were built by the Norman invaders after they invaded in 1066. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. How were these castles built? However, not all of these structures were abandoned. Thanks to the Norman influence in southern Italy and Sicily, a small number of castles were also built there. They were cheap and easy to build and didn’t require any special design. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification.Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe.. The construction itself didn’t require special materials, and the work could usually be carried out by unskilled men. Their construction was the start of what was to become a massive castle building programme in England and Wales. As a result, Roger embarked on a major castle-building programme with over 70 motte and bailey castles built. Timber also tends to rot easily, and many of these early castles ran into disrepair and were abandoned. Motte and Bailey castles Their biggest advantage, the fact that the primary building material was wood, became the greatest disadvantage. Mottes were made out of earth and flattened on top. Motte and Bailiey castles were the earliest form of castles built completely from scratch by the Normans. However, building a motte was a skilled achievement. After William’s response to the rebellion in the north of England, many areas were simply too scared to rebel. The term bailey typically refers to the yard formed by the flattening of an area alongside the motte. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. Sometimes the ditches were filled with water by damming or diverting nearby streams forming water-filled moats. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification. In practice, no two motte and bailey castles were exactly the same, although most of them shared these three elements: the motte, the keep, and the bailey. The yard was usually surrounded by a wooden fence called a “palisade” and then a ditch. The motte and bailey design gradually became less popular in the mid-medieval period, and from the end of the 12th century, a new scientific approach in castle design had emerged. It is thought that as many as 1000 Motte and Bailey castles were built in England by the Normans in the Middle Ages. When William landed at … Motte and Bailey castles were made out of wood. Motte and bailey castles were a sign that feared Norman soldiers were never too far away. This was the factor that allowed the Normans to consolidate their power very quickly, as they moved on to conquer each region. He allowed the Saxon nobles to keep their land and he tried to learn English. As a marker of their success, almost 1,000 motte-and-bailey castles were built in England, Wales, and Scotland. Motte and bailey castles were a common feature in England by the death of William the Conqueror in 1087. This was because timber burns easily. Stone castles were extremely expensive and took a great deal of time to build. Click any of the example images below to view a larger version. Motte and bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, Ireland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is thought that as many as 100,000 people died of starvation. Motte and Bailey Castles What Is a Motte and Bailey Castle? Stone castles were built taller and gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather. These structures are of northern European design, and can also be found in Denmark and Germany, but also even in southern Italy, and occasionally beyond. French noblemen took to protecting themselves in fortified buildings that were known as castellans – these served as private fortifications in which people and animals were protected from these feared invaderseval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historylearningsite_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',114,'0','0'])); Some of the Vikings eventually stayed in northern France and the Norsemen became the Normans. It is believed that over 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. Small and medium mottes could not sustain a large keep, and this meant that living quarters were essentially small and cramped. Raiders would usually use this to their advantage and would often surprise the defenders inside the keep. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? The bailey was linked to the motte either by a flying bridge stretching between the two, or, more commonly in England, by steps cut into the motte. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. Stone keep castles were built because it wasn't going to burn or rot like Motte and Bailey castles would. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? This meant that a motte and bailey castle could be built quite quickly using just local manpower, earth and timber. The Normans were master castle builders. Stone castles were stronger and did not rot like wood, but they were expensive and took many years to build. An earth mound, or motte, with a tower or lookout on top was built next to a yard, or bailey. These castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. Stone buildings could be much larger and grander than simple wooden designs, providing more luxurious accommodation for nobles History Learning Site Copyright © 2000 - 2020. They can be found primarily in Northern France, England, Wales and Scotland – but the influence of these designs spread too to Denmark, Germany, Belgium, and other spots in Northern Europe. The buildings were made on a raised mound (motte) which is accompanied by an enclosed courtyard (bailey). Individual Norman knights were invaders so building motte and bailey castles for themselves and their soldiers was just seen as common sense, since the Saxons did not think highly of them. Also, it would keep it the castle standing for a long amount of time. After he invaded England in 1066, William needed to construct castles in large numbers. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. Though these structures had a simplistic and relatively rough design, they were highly effective, having excellent defensive capabilities. Some mottes were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. The Bailey was a court-yard at the foot of the mound, surrounded by a bank and ditch. Why was this so? Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. Those who rebelled against William’s power, gathered in the north of England. The first recorded motte in England was in 1051 when French castle builders were building one for the English king in Hereford. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. In 1066 William arrived at Pevensey and straight away decided to build a castle as protection for himself and the men he valued most. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Many motte and bailey castles were abandoned or allowed to lapse into disrepair. In 1069, they targeted the most obvious sign of William’s authority – the castle of York. William was a highly skilled and feared soldier who had learned his military skills in northern France. Motte and Bailey castles were built in the 11th century just after the battle of Hastings in 1066. Although the motte-and-bailey design is a particularly northern European phenomenon (most castles of this type can be found in Normandy and Britain), we can also see such structures in other parts of Europe, such as Denmark, Germany, Southern Italy and occasionally beyond. By the end of the 11th century, these structures, especially the ones made out of earth and timber, began to fall from favour for various reasons. The motte was flattened on top in order for the keep to be constructed. French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. New motte and bailey castles stopped being built by the late 1200s. The motte was a tall, _____ hill which would have usually been man-made. However, the French were unpopular with the local population and the French builders left without anything substantial being built. The keep on top of the motte was also the castle’s last line of defence and it was placed where the lord of the castle, and most likely his family, resided. Was such a feat possible? When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. Castles began to emerge in Europe as early as the 9 th century, but the first structures that we can truly call ‘castles’ were motte-and-bailey fortifications. They used these castles to make their settlement of England more secure following William the Conqueror’s victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066. 4 The motte was usually round. William started his reign as king of England with uncharacteristic diplomacy. Norman soldiers destroyed anything that might have been of use to those who lived in the north. Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. The first, in 1066, was a temporary earth and timber motte and bailey castle on the site of an older fortification at Dane John, the mound still visible today within Dane John Gardens. William responded by marching his feared army to a trouble spot and re-asserting his authority. This meant that he did not have to fight for London – and the people of London were spared their city being torched. The They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. Motte-and-bailey castles also began to appear in Denmark at this time, although in fewer numbers, perhaps because feudalism was less widespread there. In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. After his victory at Hastings in 1066, William moved around the south coast to Dover. In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. The bailey … They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. It is possible that local towns people were coerced into working extremely hard to complete the task. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres, around 24% were between 5 and 10 metres, and 69% were less than 5 metres in height. Here he built his third English castle after Pevensey and Hastings. The Normans achieved great fame for their castle building. It was now that William took away land from the Saxon nobles and gave it to his own nobility. In France, motte-and-bailey castles were not built after the start of the 12th century, and mottes ceased to be built in most of England after around Motte and bailey castles were used all over Europe. A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. In these castles, there was a fortified building (the castle) on top of a man-made hill called a motte. William was furious and decided to lay waste the north of England – the so-called “Harrying of the North”. See more ideas about Motte and bailey castle, Castle project, Norman castle. Motte and bailey castles were a common feature in England by the death of William the Conqueror in 1087. Moreover, Norman designers found out that the wider the ditch was dug, the deeper and steeper the sides of the scarp could be, making it even more difficult for attackers. 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